Originally published on Enzine Articles on 12-03-07 and Searchwarp.com on 12-06-07
If you are new to training development and have been thinking of putting together any type of training program, it is important to know and understand the most basic training tool used by professional trainers; it is called the ADDIE model.
The ADDIE model is basically a generic, systematic, step-by-step framework used by instructional designers, developers and trainers to ensure course development and learning does not occur in a haphazard, unstructured way. It is designed to ensure: (1) learners will achieve the goals of the course, (2) allows for the evaluation of learner’s needs, (3) the design and development of training materials, and (4) evaluation of effectiveness of the training program using processes with specific, measurable outcomes.
ADDIE came about with the development of the Cold War after World War II as the
The literature on ADDIE estimates that there are well over 100 different ISD variations in use today, with almost all being based on the generic ADDIE model, which stands for Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation; with each step or phase leading into the next as illustrated below:
Analysis → Design → Development → Implementation → Evaluation
One commonly accepted improvement to the ADDIE model that almost everyone uses whether consciously or unconsciously, is the use of what is often referred to as rapid prototyping which attempts to catch design flaws while they are still easy to fix. This is done by receiving ongoing feedback throughout all phases of the ADDIE model and making changes while moving forward.
During the Analysis phase, we define and develop as clear of an understanding of the audience's needs, constraints, existing knowledge, skills and the desired outcome of the training that we can. The Design phase endeavors to identify specific learning objectives, topic content, presentation methods and media, learner exercises and assessment criteria to be used. The Development phase creates and begins production of the learning materials to be used in the training. Implementation delivers the material by actually presenting and/or delivering the developed plan to the intended learning group or audience. After delivery, the Evaluation phase assesses the effectiveness of the topic content and training materials utilized in the training program and makes improvement changes for the next implementation or presentation. Let’s take a look at each phase individually.
The Analysis phase is the most important phase in the ADDIE model. It identifies areas requiring or needing training taking into account views of subject matter experts, the target audience, and the ultimate objectives and goals of the training.
During this phase, we define and develop as clear of an understanding of the audience's needs and constraints, existing knowledge, skills, and the desired outcome of the training as we can. It is here that we identify the learning problem, set the goals, objectives, any other relevant characteristics of the desired training, and consider the learning environment, available delivery options, and the timeline for the project.
Here are some areas that should be addressed during the analysis phase:
The Development phase is the actual production and assembly of the materials that were developed in the design phase. At this point it is important to include whoever is responsible for which elements, time schedules, and deadlines. In this phase, all audio, video, and courseware materials are collected, prepared, created and ready to be tested. During this phase, the following should be considered:
The Implementation phase is where the developed course is actually put into action, and the final product, developed based on needs and errors discovered while testing with a prototype product, is presented to the target audience.
Depending on the size of the audience and amount of time and resources allocated to this endeavor, the following considerations should be taken into account the day before or the morning of presentation day.
After delivery, the Evaluation phase, in a systemic process, considers feedback from the learners. The feedback gathered during this phase measures reaction, identifies what is working and not working, determines the effectiveness and quality of the delivery, and is designed to fine-tune the program. It validates whether the course satisfied its objectives and the effectiveness of the training materials used. It finds out whether the learning went as planned, and it may also uncover any obstacles that may have emerged, then, by making revisions, adjustments and corrections as needed, insures the success of the next presentation.
Use a well-designed post presentation questionnaire, evaluation and/or survey that provides for anonymous feedback if desired by the participant. Some or all of the following should be included in the evaluation:
At the end of the program, collect the evaluations, review the program data, prepare and report performance results. In reviewing the program data the report should include but not be limited to the number of participant learners trained, percent of participants who passed the course, and their satisfaction with the material presented and how it was presented.
An honest evaluation of the program results at this point will yield a bountiful amount of information that can be used to perfect and insure the success of all future presentations. Use this information positively, and you will be rewarded with a superb result!